Spectator ions are not just bystanders: how spectator cation size affects work function and film stability of high performance polymer systems

14/11/2019. Spectator ions ('free' ions needed to balance 'fixed', covalently bonded ions in a conventional polyelectrolyte) were traditionally thought to play only a passive role beyond charge stabilisation and processability (and hence their name). A team of ONDL scientists recently discovered that the size of the spectator cation can affect the work function of the polyelectrolyte and plays an important role in film processability and stability. This is attributed to the degree of Coloumb stabilisation of the anionic site, which varies with the spectator cation size. Their work can provide a simple design rule for the development of future ambient-stable, self-compensated, hole-doped ultra-work function polymers.DOI: 10.1039/c9tc03884a


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